you read, Survey the chapter:
- the title, headings, and subheadings
- captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps
- review questions or teacher-made study guides
- introductory and concluding paragraphs
while you are surveying:
- Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into
- Read questions at the end of the chapters or after
- Ask yourself, "What did my instructor say about
this chapter or subject when it was assigned?"
- Ask yourself, "What do I already know about
- Note: If it is helpful to you, write out these questions
for consideration. This variation is called SQW3R
you begin to Read:
- Look for answers to the questions you first raised;
- Answer questions at the beginning or end of chapters
or study guides
- Reread captions under pictures, graphs, etc.
- Note all the underlined, italicized, bold printed
words or phrases
- Study graphic aids
- Reduce your speed for difficult passages
- Stop and reread parts which are not clear
- Read only a section at a time and recite after each
after you've read a section:
- Orally ask yourself questions about what you have
just read or summarize, in your own words, what you
- Take notes from the text but write the information
in your own words
- Underline or highlight important points you've just
- Use the method of recitation which best suits your
particular learning style but remember, the more senses
you use the more likely you are to remember what you
read - i.e.,TRIPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing, saying,
hearing- QUADRUPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing , saying
, hearing, writing!!!
an ongoing process.
- After you have read and recited the entire chapter,
write questions in the margins for those points you
have highlighted or underlined.
- If you took notes while reciting, write questions
for the notes you have taken in the left hand margins
of your notebook.
- Page through the text and/or your notebook to re-acquaint
yourself with the important points.
- Cover the right hand column of your text/note-book
and orally ask yourself the questions in the left
- Orally recite or write the answers from memory.
- Make "flash cards" for those questions
which give you difficulty.
- Develop mnemonic devices for material which need
to be memorized.
Days Three, Four and Five
- Alternate between your flash cards and notes and
test yourself (orally or in writing) on the questions
- Make additional flash cards if necessary.
- Using the text and notebook, make a Table of Contents
- list all the topics and sub-topics you need to know
from the chapter.
- From the Table of Contents, make a Study Sheet/
- Recite the information orally and in your own words
as you put the Study Sheet/Map together.
Now that you have consolidated all the information
you need for that chapter, periodically review the Sheet/Map
so that at test time you will not have to cram.
F. P. (1970). Effective study (4th ed.), Harper &
Row, New York, NY.